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This is an edited version of the original flagship work published by Charles Darwin that officially represents the treatise on his theory of natural selection. The ideas presented in this work are responsible for founding what is now known as the theory of Darwinian evolution. Not very technical in nature, but very well written. Much of what this work lacks is owing to the limitations of scientific instrumentation and the refinement of scientific discovery. This is a very important work to read for anyone who wishes to understand exactly what Darwin taught. Primary sources are always important to any discussion concerning their influence. Recommended for reference and familiarity, especially for the more serious student.
Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. New York: Gramercy Books, 1979 (orig. 1859).
This is a must read for any student interested in considering scientific objections to the theory of evolution from a secular perspective. Written by an agnostic geneticist, this volume presents a number of very powerful challenges against the theory of Darwinian evolution. One of the chief values of this work is that it is written from a secular perspective that is not interested in a theistic position, yet is willing to acknowledge certain implications. In fact, Denton seems to argue for an alternative view to life’s diversity without having to look to supernatural explanations—he maintains a naturalistic presupposition. This being said, he begins the volume by reviewing the descent of biblical conviction after the enlightenment; he entitles this opening chapter, “Genesis Rejected.” Though some of the material is fairly technical, it is presented in an understandable fashion that should be accessible to most readers. A recommended resource provided a careful discernment regarding Denton’s presuppositions and lack of biblical consideration.
Denton, Michael. Evolution: A Theory in Crisis. Bethesda, MD: Adler & Adler, 1986.
This is one of the flagship works that presented a revolutionary challenge to the theory of biochemical evolution from the analysis of a microbiologist. This volume does not argue in favor of biblical cosmology, but rather presents severe challenges to the largely unchallenged allegiance to the theory of evolution within the scientific community. Behe effectively popularized the concept of “irreducible complexity” as an argument for “intelligent design.” He persuasively argues that biochemical systems exhibit irreducibly complex features and systems that preclude the possibility of evolutionary development. The volume is fairly technical, incorporating technical data and research to support his thesis. Behe does argue against wholesale acceptance of Darwinism, however, does not dismiss the possibility of limited evolution (as in micro-evolution). This work does not address the creation of the world overtly, nor does it make any allusions to the age of the earth. It is an important work to consider for any student interested in understanding the intelligent design debate and associated challenges to the theory of evolution at the detailed scientific level.
Behe, M. Darwin’s Black Box. New York: Touchstone., 1996.
This is effectively a compilation of updated and revised articles of previous works from each of the respective authors. Clearly a concerted effort to present a multi-faceted challenge to the theory of evolution with a strong aim toward intelligent design (ID). The authors are three of the leading ID representatives who are well qualified scientists. The appendices of this book represents nearly half of the volume and offers new material that addresses and answers current criticism of ID. Fairly technical in nature and most certainly not argued from a biblical perspective, this volume will not be as helpful to the average hobbyist. The last essay in the appendix argues for interdisciplinary dialogue between science and theology via “explanatory power” approach over the traditional “rational compulsion” method. The careful student of the Bible must be discerning and guard from a wholesale acceptance of ID and its reasoning. ID presents very useful evidence and arguments that demonstrate scientific compatibility with a literal understanding of Scripture, however, ID also promotes an epistemic support that does not presuppose the Bible to be the inspired, inerrant, and sufficient source of knowledge for understanding reality. A resource that may be useful to the more serious student of cosmology provided that a sound biblically-based resource is used as a compliment.
Behe Michael, William Dembski, and Stephen Meyer. Science and Evidence for Design in the Universe. San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press, 2000.
In his typical style, Lee Stroble presents persuasive arguments in favor of an intelligent designer as the responsible agent behind the material universe by way of a compilation of several well articulated interviews. The volume does touch on presuppositional considerations while effectively utilizing empirical evidences availed in modern science. The strength of the book is found in Stroble’s lawyer style examination of evidence and the credentials of the interviewees. Several arguments and strong counter-rebuttals to previously stated arguments are quite helpful. The text is generally accessible and understandable to the non-technical reader, though it is not devoid of technical arguments. The volume is clearly an argument for intelligent design (ID) and not biblical creation according to Genesis. Scripture is not presented as the authority or first object of presupposition, however, a summary of the Case for Christ is presented in the appendix. A helpful resource, especially regarding the most recent counter-rebuttals to ID, however, it is neither technical nor biblically based.
Strobel, Lee. Case for a Creator. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2004.
This is a helpful tool for dealing with the most contemporary issues related to the evolution versus creation debate. This 304 page book is very well documented, reflecting principles of sound research and careful argumentation. Though clearly coming from a literal biblical perspective, this volume does a fine job of defining terms, explaining otherwise complex concepts, and applying objective scientific principles to the questions at hand. The book is quite systematic in its approach to compare and contrast what current science textbooks state, what current scientific research reveals (“what we really know about…”), and what questions the reader should consider. References to other helpful tools are frequently listed as well as articles of further study on most any particular field of study considered. The book is equipped with an accessible glossary, a chapter and unit review per textbook, an index of articles, and a general topical index. It is very readable and accessible to the non-technical reader, yet is built upon careful research. A helpful and recommended resource for the student of cosmology interested in arguments from science that refute evolutionary dogma and demonstrate compatibility with a literal understanding of the Bible.
Patterson, Roger. Evolution Exposed. Second Edition. Answers in Genesis, 2007.
This is small but capable work that presents a critique of current theories of evolution. It is intended to provide a scholarly response to the publication put forth by the National Academy of Science (NAS) entitled Teaching about Evolution and the Nature of Science. Sarfati skillfully leverages quotations presented by evolutionists and refutes their claims by arguing conservatively from science. One of the strengths of this volume is that it capably covers a wide variety of topics in an effective yet concise manner. It addresses the presuppositional nature of interpretation and deals with the perceived conflict or incompatibility between science and religion. Though the vast majority of its arguments are framed from a sound scientific basis, it is not overly technical. The author maintains a literal six day creation view as presented in Genesis. A helpful resource that is recommended for all.
Sarfati, Jonathan. Refuting Evolution. Green Forest, AR: Master Books, Inc., 2004.
A well written sequel to Refuting Evolution that impressively and powerfully refutes Darwinian evolutionary dogma. The layout of this volume is systematic and crisp. It flows logically and is very readable. It is broken down into three units which effectively repudiate crucial strong-holds that evolutionists claim: (1) evolution is science, (2) evolution is well supported by the evidence, and (3) “problems” with evolution are illusory. Each of these categories of discussion are handled with precision and care. As with the previous volume, this work is very accessible (non-technical) and still quite useful for even some of the more challenging issues. It contains a helpful appendix that demonstrates a carefully conservative approach to disputing evolution with a high view of Scripture and an evident commitment to sound science. The author maintains a literal six day creation view as presented in Genesis. A helpful resource that is recommended for all.
Sarfati, Jonathan. Refuting Evolution 2. Green Forest, AR: Master Books, Inc., 2005.
A distilled version of several topics related to previous anti-Darwinian works. This volume appeals more to socialism, moralism, and a vague mention of Christianity than science. It includes arguments from social development and historical observations as well as from an appeal to religion. It explicitly appeals to intelligent design (ID) and argues against modernism. The book concludes by suggesting reconciliation between science and religion—specifically, yet very discretely: Christianity. It should be noted that this work does not argue for six day creation, nor does it oppose uniformitarianism, nor does frame its arguments from Scripture. A potentially useful resource for introductory inquiry.
Johnson, Phillip. Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1997.
Another important work from a secular platform that challenges the theory of evolution on the basis of modern scientific evidence and careful scientific scrutiny. Though modern science is certainly employed to pose the strongest arguments against the theory of evolution, this work is not a scientific study. It is authored by a law professor who presents persuasive arguments and impressive research that leverages the statements of scientists and related historical documentation. As with other “intelligent design” material, this volume does not argue for a biblical view, nor does it purpose an authority in the matter, it simply raises objections to the propagation of the theory of evolution on the basis of secular observation. A useful resource to consider, yet it should be noted that it is devoid of any biblical consideration and is limited in its technical credibility.
Johnson, Phillip. Darwin on Trial. Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1991.